The Evolution of Exudativory in Primates

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Portsmouth Research Portal. Standard Seasonality in gum and honeydew feeding in gray mouse lemurs. The evolution of exudativory in primates. Burrows; Leanne T.

Berlin : Springer, Developments in primatology: progress and prospects , Springer, Berlin, pp. Joly, M. Nash Eds. Developments in primatology: progress and prospects. Berlin: Springer. Joly M , Zimmermann E. Joly, Marine ; Zimmermann, Elke.

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Burrows ; Leanne T. U2 - SN - hbk. However, the main differences across chapters are in lower level taxonomy e. Most authors follow the same subordinal taxonomy within primates as used in this chapter. As was previously known, strepsirrhines and callithrichines consume the greatest volumes of exudates relative to their entire diet while patas monkeys, some vervets, and baboons also consume considerable volumes.


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Occasional use of pod exudates in Lagothrix and occasional gum consumption in some langurs, macaques, forest guenons, and chimpanzees are now also known. As Smith points out, his list likely misses a number of noncallithrichines and non-Malagasy strepsirrhines due to a lack of comparable detailed field work on such species. Ironically, though galagos were among the first primates to be noted as major exudativores, there has been little recent detailed fieldwork on them or any African lorisoids that has focused on feeding patterns.

Thus, it is unknown how these galagos and pottos compare to Asian lorises in their consumption of exudates and why they differ. For example, he has shown that gray mouse lemurs compete intraspecifically for access to gum and females dominate males in accessing gum sources.

The Evolution of Exudativory in Primates

He also documents the first case of Phaner dominating Microcebus murinus at gum sources in Kirindy. In western forests, mouse lemur species eat gum more seasonally or not at all. They argue that gum may be a more reliable and rapidly renewing carbohydrate source than fruit where rainfall is unpredictable and argue that gum use may be a primitive adaptation in all cheirogalieds. The possible diversity among mouse lemur species and populations in consumption of gum, as with galagos, may provide opportunities for future comparative work in both behavioral and morphological adaptations to exudativory.

The hypothesis that the evolution of gummivory is associated with an unpredictable environment is bolstered by the recent first fieldwork on Allocebus trichotis in Madagascar which suggests that, as predicted from its dental morphology, gum is probably a major part of its diet Biebouw It is hoped that more detailed information on its feeding ecology will become available in the near future. Turning to haplorrhines, it was recognized in the s that baboons were one of the largest-bodied primates that eat gum.

Burrows / Nash | The Evolution of Exudativory in Primates |

What is new is the case that Altmann makes for the importance of gum in the diet of juvenile baboons. While it seems that these chimpanzees gain negligible energy from the gums, they do seem to gain sufficient amounts of various minerals calcium, magnesium, manganese, and potassium to fulfill their daily requirements for these minerals.

Body size, as well as the nature of other dietary components, may influence different nutritional advantages for exudativory across primates Power, Chap. Patas monkeys in East Africa feed primarily on gums, a rarity among adult Old World monkeys. Isbell and colleagues have shown that the development of this 6 L. Burrows odd dietary niche for a relatively large-bodied Old World monkey may have been driven in part by their notably long limbs which allow them to cover a wide geographic range in a given time to gather gums.

In addition, these large monkeys seem to be able to subsist primarily on exudates because substantial volumes of arthropods are associated with the gums and consumed along with them. The consumption of gum by patas monkeys, baboons, and living humans has even been incorporated into reconstructions of the diet of early hominins Copeland In the Neotropics, an important outcome of continuing fieldwork is that it is now clear that a simple distinction between marmosets as year-round gum specialists vs.

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There is considerable diversity in the extent to which gums are eaten within marmosets, within tamarins, and even within the same genus of these groups Smith, Chap. The extent to which this diversity within marmosets or within tamarins is incorporated into anatomical studies is quite variable. Callimico, whose diet was very poorly known in , was then thought not to eat exudates. As reported by Garber and Porter Chap.

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Garber and Porter elaborate here on how important various exudates may be for some nongouging callithrichines throughout all or much of the year. The criteria for obligate exudativores generally included use of gum across all seasons and the possession of morphological features associated with gum procurement or digestion including small body size, sharp or claw-like nails, dental features associated with gouging, and an expanded gut especially the cecum for fermentation see further on anatomy below.

These concepts are invoked in most chapters in this volume and sometimes are treated as if the concepts of keystone food and fallback food are interchangeable. However, it is best to keep the notions separate Marshall and Wrangham To what extent exudativorous primates or the plants from which they consume exudates are keystone species, in the sense that sugar gliders may be in the example presented above, is not know for any primate. Peres has made the case for one type of exudate, the pod gums from Parkia trees, as a keystone resource in some Neotropical forests.

It is clear that for many primates exudates may be important fallback food. These authors argue that fallback foods, while often consumed seasonally, in some cases may be eaten year round. Their key to identifying a fallback food is that it be eaten in amounts inversely related to the availability of preferred foods.

This criterion requires 1 data on the availability of all food types, and 2 identification of preferred foods. Preferred foods are those eaten in excess of their availability; neither availability rarity nor frequency of consumption alone defines a preferred item. Preferred foods are argued to primarily drive harvesting adaptations perception, spatial navigation, cognition, and locomotion , while fallback foods shape processing adaptations dental and supporting morphology, gut anatomy and kinetics, body size, tool use.

Marshall and Wrangham distinguish within fallback foods staple fallback foods those that can seasonally be the sole food eaten and filler fallback foods those that are never the whole diet. Acacia gum would be a staple fallback food for G. The chapters in this volume mainly focus on the latter two levels of scale and on craniodental morphological features. In order to decide if exudates are fallback foods we need better information on their bioavailability of nutrients Power, Chap.

We need to decide if they are staple or filler fallback foods. Burrows Garber and Porter Chap. Part of their critique is based on the possibility that pod gums are more digestible see below for further discussion of this point. Thus they question to what extent different sorts of processing and harvesting adaptations are, or are not, associated with fallback foods.

Though the time scale is different, they, like Garber and Porter Chap. The cognitive, social and life-history ramifications of gum use have barely been addressed. The extent to which these differences can be generalized to other primate taxa, for example, lorisoids or lemuroids, remains to be examined. For example, while Cebuella may tend to focus their territory on one or a few gum trees in their small territories, this is not the pattern that is found among galagos.

The lack of good field or captive data comparing cognitive or social differences among galagos and lorises that do and do not use gums extensively would be informative. It has been argued that Phaner and some marmosets, though not Cebuella, share a situation where the use of reliably located gum resources that are quickly depleted, rapidly renewing, and are monopolizable but not clumped, allows group members to feed near each other.

Factors Influencing Selectivity in Exudate-Feeding Factors influencing selectivity include those involved in both the harvesting and processing of exudates. Globs may also be located in different parts of the plant. We are only beginning to understand the factors that influence why exudates are eaten by a primate at a particular place and time.

Digestive Challenges and Nutrients in Gum Since most of the exudates consumed by primates are gums, it is not surprising that most work on the nutritional benefits and digestive problems of exudate consumption has been directed at gums. As detailed by Power Chap. They are assumed to mainly be eaten for their energy content, but the carbohydrates must be fermented to be bioavailable. For example, we know that exudates from plants of the pea-family Fabaceae are favored across most primates Smith, Chap.

Lemurs seem to have developed the ability to tolerate a variety of secondary compounds Ganzhorn Do they differ from other strepsirrhines in selecting exudates based on these antinutrients Reed and Bidner ? Power Chap. In addition to energy content, early hypotheses of gum consumption suggested that since it was high in calcium and low in phosphorus, it complemented the reversed ratio found in insects and some fruits Bearder and Martin a , especially during gestation and lactation Garber In a review across primates, Smith Chap.

However, Garber and Porter Chap.

Burrows Digestible Energy form of Trunk Gum vs. Pod Gum vs. Honeydew There are various suggestions or direct claims that different types of exudates differ in the nutrients they provide to primates. Joly-Radko and Zimmermann Chap. This may imply that it is more nutritious than gum, since the sap has been predigested by the insects that exude the honeydew.

Based on the notion that plants make their parts attractive through higher nutritional value when consumption of the part services the plant, Smith Chap. However, we really do not yet know if these supposed differences are real for the exudate consumer. He points out that chemical analyses can be misleading if analytic methods are not fully understood, that some analyses do not reflect the results of digestion, especially where fermentation is involved, and that they do not tell you whether potentially available energy is actually used.

Only feeding trials can do this. However, some field observations may be suggestive of energy payoffs of gum. This suggests that the energy payoff in favor of females comes from fruit, not gum. Because of the digestive challenges presented by gums, differences in gut anatomy and kinetics have been associated with differences in gum use see below. Heymann and Smith found that wild tamarins concentrated gum consumption late in the day. This was interpreted as behavior which held the gum in the gut during the night when defecation was less common so that it could be fermented longer.

Smith Chap. They found a pattern of trunk and stilt gums being eaten more in the morning and pod gums being eaten more in the afternoon. Sampling methods, definitions of behavioral categories, and specific dependent variables used rarely are directly comparable. Some studies assess changes e.

However, the latter is critical for testing various hypotheses about anatomical, social, and cognitive correlates of food availability. Exudates are quite challenging when it comes to measuring availability and quality. Distribution of food patches also varies on spatial scales, which can range from an intercontinental scale down to variation within a single plant. Distribution can also vary on a time scale ranging from years to the rate of renewal at a single glob.